Международный школьный научный вестник
Научный журнал для старшеклассников и учителей ISSN 2542-0372

О журнале Выпуски Правила Олимпиады Учительская Поиск Личный портфель

THE GREAT FEMALE LEADERS WHO CHANGED THE COURSE OF HISTORY

Акинин М.Д. 1
1 с. Старомарьевка, МКОУ СОШ № 7, 10 класс
Акобян А.Т. (с. Старомарьевка, МКОУ СОШ № 7)
1. The consultations: Akinina Yelena Viktorovna a teacher of Russian language and literature, MOEI SCS #7 Staromarevka village. Hakopyan Svetlana Khachaturovna a teacher of history of Georgia, Ninotsminda, Georgia. Ella Hall a teacher of ancient civilizations, Middle and High School, Lee, Massachusetts, USA
2. И.А. Атаджанян «Из истории русско-армянских взаимоотношений с X по XVIII века»
3. Борис Васильев ««Ольга, королева руссов»
4. Григорий Анчападзе и Мзиа Сургуладзе «История Грузии»
5. К.Н.В. Императрица Елизавета Петровна и король Людовик XV // Исторический вестник, 1884. – Т. 16. – № 8. – С. 346-365. – Сетевая версия – И. Ремизова, 2007.
6. Школьная энциклопедия «Руссика». История Нового времени. 16-18вв. –М: ОЛМА- ПРЕСС образование, 2003-688 с, ил.
7. Школьная энциклопедия «Русика». Новейшая история. 20в – М.: ОЛМА-ПРЕСС Образование, 2003.- 604 с., ил.
8. Школьная энциклопедия «Руссика». Новейшая история. 20 в.-М.: ОЛМА ПРЕСС Образование, 2003.-640 с., ил.
9. Энциклопедия для детей. Т. 5. История России и ее ближайших соседей. Ч. 1. От древних славян до Петра Великого.- 2 изд., испр. И доп./ Глав. ред. М.Д. Аксенова- М.Аванта +, 2000.- 688с.:ил.
10. Энциклопедия для детей. Т. 5. История России и ее ближайших соседей. Ч. 2. От дворцовых переворотов до эпохи Великих./ Глав. ред. М.Д. Аксенова- М.Аванта +, 2000.- 704 с.:ил.
11. “Cleopatra” by H. Rider Haggard
12. Barbara Evans Clemen “A History of Women in Russia: From Earliest Times to the Present”
13. Heidi Hayes Jacobs “History of Our World” Oth Edition ISBN-13 978-0132037730, ISBN-10:0132037734
14. Пhttp://orthochristian.com/95582.htmlовесть временных лет. – Изд. 2-е, испр. и доп. – СПб., 1996. – С. 7
15. The New York Times by ALISON SMALE and STEVEN ERLANGERMAY 28, 2017
16. [AFP/The Local. 15 November 2016].
17. http://www.antiochian.org/node/18335 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cleopatra
18. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/tudors/elizabeth_i_01.shtml
19. http://www.bbc.com/news/world-europe-11559451
20. http://www.bbc.com/news/uk-politics-10377842
21. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/543743.stm
22. http://www.culturalindia.net/leaders/indira-gandhi.html
23. https://m.dailyhunt.in/news/india/english/lifeberrys+english-epaper-lifebeen/5+controversies+that+kept+indira+gandhi+in+news-newsid-76461399
24. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tamar_of_Georgia
25. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_to_the_Troops_at_Tilbury
26. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indira_Gandhi
27. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Margaret_Thatcher#cite_note-Oxford1-27
28. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elizabeth_of_Russia
29. http://eng.tzar.ru/museums/history/monarchy
30. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Golden_Speech
31. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Angela_Merkel
32. http://manybooks.net/pages/haggardhetext01clptr10/37.html
33. http://manybooks.net/pages/haggardhetext01clptr10/0.html
34. https://memoirs.ru/texts/KNV_EIL_IV84_16_8.htm
35. http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/102939
36. http://www.margaretthatcher.org/document/102947
37. http://penelope.uchicago.edu/Thayer/E/Roman/Texts/Plutarch/Lives/Antony*.html
38. [https://www.swr.de/swraktuell/-/id=396/nid=396/did=7030978/166vg7v/index.htm].
39. https://ru.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ольга_(княгиня_Киевская)
40. http://www.stgabrielashland.org/st-olga-the-princess-of-russia/
41. https://www.theguardian.com/politics/2016/dec/30/margaret-thatcher-resignation-shocked-us-ussr-files.

The introduction

There is an opinion that it is the lot of men to make the history, to decide the fates of people and the state. Consequently, its main heroes are considered the wise and brave commanders, courageous and intelligent rulers, and public figures…the males and not the females. But contrary to this opinion names of equally strong and wise representatives of females are inscribed in the pantheon of world history, each of whom has made her invaluable contribution to the development and welfare of her state. Women who could take leadership roles in a dignified way, who once built and, as required, methodically destroyed the careers of great men, and repeatedly changed the course of history and culture. These women have often been ahead of time and shown their steel endurance and incredible moral fortitude. In other words, the women, whom we never stop admiring.

A woman is always the embodiment of the life principle. But her role is not limited to the birth and education of children, because it was the woman who at all times was the inspiration, the founder, the Muse... The most important role in the development of the state in the whole history of the world was played by its rulers. In my work, I want to pay special attention to those women who were involved in the governance of the state – seven women who took leadership roles in different eras: Princess Olga, Queen of Egypt Cleopatra, Queen of Georgia Tamar, Elizabeth Tudor, Catherine the Great, Indian Prime Minister Indira Gandhi and British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher.

I have tried to answer a number of questions related to the topic: “The great female leaders who changed the course of history”:

- How was the rule passed into women’s hands?

- What difficulties were met on this path?

- What reforms were carried out during the women’s rule?

- What memory did the women leaders leave behind?

-How did their reign affect the development of the state?

Thus, I proved the hypothesis: a woman is able to rule a state worthily.

The topic of my research is relevant. The purpose of my research, as emphasized in my thesis statement, is the ability of women to rule and take leadership positions in societies in a worthy manner. My research examines seven powerful female historical figures from various time periods and cultures through interdisciplinary approach which allows me to support or validate my thesis statement.

By the type of the activity this work is research work. Thus, the hypothesis is proved in the process of researching the topic. The content of the following research work refers to the interdisciplinary one.

Thesis

“The woman in her weakness is yet the strongest force on the Earth. Nature ever fights upon her side.”

[“Cleopatra” by H. Rider Haggard page 38].

The topic of my research is relevant because an eternal dispute, who is wiser – a man or a woman, is not solved yet, but continues with varying success. There are a lot of names of women who kept the course of history on their fragile shoulders and who propelled their country forward to prosperity. Throughout the world history, the females have repeatedly proved that they are well-off in all spheres of society and that every woman is unique and beautiful in her own way.

The objective of the work:

1. To study the activities of the women who could take leadership roles in the world politics in different periods of history;

2. To continue to improve my knowledge in the field of history and English language.

The goals of the work:

– to study the position of the women who could take leadership roles in the political arena in more detail;

- to develop skills to select and systematize materials for observation;

- to improve the skills of working with scientific, fiction and reference literature in both Russian and English;

- to continue to improve communicative skills.

The object of the study:

- the activities of the women who once could take leadership roles of their states.

Research hypothesis:

A woman is able to rule a state worthily.

The methods of research:

- the research of scientific and world literature on this topic in English and Russian-language sources;

- consultations with scientific workers of foreign countries;

- analysis and synthesis of historical documents and research literature;

- survey and questioning;

-comparative analysis;

-typification

- presentation of the work in English and its translation into Russian.

By the type of the activity this work is research work. Thus, the hypothesis is proved in the process of researching the topic. The content of the following research work refers to the interdisciplinary one.

According to the organization it is individual.

By time it is long-term. (Long-term: April 2017 – February 2018).

In the MOEI SCS #7 an anonymous survey was conducted among 7-9 grade students (170 students), 10-11 grade students classes (40 students) and among teachers (30 teachers). Everyone was offered the following questions:

1. Is a woman capable of ruling a state with dignity?

7 – 9 grade students answered:

“YES” – 51%; “NO” – 27%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 14%; “OTHER” – 8%

10 – 11 grade students answered:

“YES” – 71%; “NO” – 22%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 7%; “OTHER” – 0%

The teachers answered:

“YES” – 87%; “NO” – 5%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 7%; “OTHER” – 1%

2. Is a woman capable of influencing a man’s opinion?

7 – 9 grade students answered:

“YES” – 70%; “NO” – 11%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 8%; “OTHER” – 11%

10 – 11 grade students answered:

“YES” – 39%; “NO” – 57%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 2%; “OTHER” – 2%

The teachers answered:

YES” – 37%; “NO” – 11%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 8%; “OTHER” – 44%

3. Are women wiser than men?

7 – 9 grade students answered:

YES” – 50%; “NO” – 17%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 15%; “OTHER” – 18%

10 – 11 grade students answered:

YES” – 37%; “NO” – 55%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 2%; “OTHER” – 6%

The teachers answered:

YES” – 77%; “NO” – 11%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 9%; “OTHER” – 3%

Analyzing the results of the questionnaire, I came to the conclusion that the students of our school believe that women can be leaders and appreciate their accomplishments in society. A higher appreciation is given by the students of the 7th to 9th grade students (probably, the impression of the students depends on the dominant role of the mother in the family) and the teachers, since the pedagogical staff of the MOEI SCS #7 mostly consists of women. The representatives of the 10th to 11th grade students appreciated the questionnaire more realistically: many of them are preparing for the passing of the USE on history and obviously possess information on this topic worthily.

In my work on the example of state activities of seven great women of different eras I tried to prove that a woman in a necessary situation can rule the state dignifiedly.

My work has a practical focus: it can be used for holding thematic class hours, for lecturing on topics in preparation for history lessons, lessons of World Literature, as well as in preparing for the passing of the USE on history, literature, social studies and English.

1. Cleopatra

Queen Cleopatra VII Philopator is known to history simply as Cleopatra (69- August 12, 30 BC).

A beauty, “a monster”, a wife

And a great queen for Caesar

Having got her power by the gods

She did not take her secrets to the tomb

But bequeathed to women forever.

What secrets did she discover to us?

What is Cleopatra`s power and success?

She could win hearts of worthy men!

Tatiana Lazrova “Cleopatra” [Translated by Akinin Mikhail]

We cannot but assume that Cleopatra was a determined queen of Macedonian descent. She was worshiped as a god and had a keen ambition to become an independent and influential leader for Egypt. She remained in history as seductress whose determination and allure elevated the kingdom’s prestige and it is due to this that she is known as being one of the most powerful female leaders in all of history. She would never let herself swept away by events but instead used them to her full advantage.

She used events such as her banishment to Syria, alliance with Julius Caesar and her relationship with Mark Antony, all to advance in her political status.

Thus she went to many great lengths to obtain and retain sources of power. Alongside this vaulting ambition and vision, Cleopatra wanted Egypt to become a strong country in order to demonstrate her capabilities and control.

There is no doubt that Cleopatra was regarded as a great beauty, even in the ancient world. But as Plutarch remarks in his “Life of Antony” “there were wit, charm and sweetness in the tones of her voice” what ultimately made Cleopatra attractive. She was also known for her high intellect. Plutarch writes that she could speak at least nine languages and rarely had need of an interpreter. [Plutarch, Life of Antony 87.1–2]

Cleopatra was a lover, warrior, and femme-fatale. Mother of a country, lover of all that brings beauty, warrior of the state, femme-fatale over all men; this was Cleopatra Queen of the Nile.

2. Princess Olga

Nikolai Mikhailovich Karamzin in his “History of the Russian State” writes “According to the legend Olga was cunning, according to the Church she was saint, and in history she remained as wise”. And who is that princess, the outstanding state figure, the fist Russian saint woman, who is told so much in the ancient Russian annals? [Том I. Глава VII. Князь Святослав. 945-972 гг.].

There are symbols for all ages.

In Russia they are the rushing trio of horses

And the Volga – the Russian river.

And Princess Olga – the Pskov people`s honour.

There are only six holy women

of Christianity era in the Apostles.

Among them is our St Olga- the patron of the state. (Unknown author) [Translated by Akinin Mikhail]

In almost two centuries after Olga`s death the monk who described her life in The Primary Chronicle illustrated her cleverness and courage, and her willingness to use those talents in defense of her peoples independence. All these events are more solidly grounded in the historical record. It describes her conversion to Christianity and her wisdom as a woman. These facts are confirmed in Byzantine sources too. She was a regent for her son for more than ten years, and during this time she increased government revenues, improved relations with other princely families, and strengthened ties to Byzantium.

N.M. Karamzin gave a brilliant appreciation of Olga`s rule saying that by her wise rule, she proved that a weak woman can sometimes be equal with great men.

After the conquest of the Derevlians, Olga began to strengthen the princely power in other lands too. And as the chronicler writes “Establishing there everything she came back to her son to Kiev and lived there in love and agreement”.

Thanks to the administrative and economic reforms, the traditional authority of the elders in the provinces was gradually replaced by the administration of the princely administrations. That was an important step towards the formation of the state. The period of the reign of Olga is not marked by large external conquest. Olga`s squad had no victorious adventures, new lands were not attached. There was peace and quietness in Rus..

Olga tried to raise the prestige of Rus not by military campaigns, not by conquest but by skillful wise diplomacy. And in this regard, the baptism of Olga is of particular importance. It helped to strengthen the international position of Rus.

3. Tamar the Great

Tamar the Great was the queen of Georgia 1184 to 1213. She was a member of the Bagrationi dynasty, her position as the first woman to rule Georgia in her own right.

I need mastery, a language and a heart

to sing about her.

Give me power and inspiration!

And the mind itself will serve her ...»

Shota Rustaveli

In The first years of her rein the domestic affairs were not cloudless. Tamar faced significant opposition from the aristocracy upon her ascension to full ruling powers after her father`s death. She addressed the clergy with wisdom and humility: “Judge according to the righteousness, affirming good and condemning evil,” she advised. “Begin with me- If sin I should be censured, for the royal crown is set down from above as a sign of divine service. Allow neither the wealth of the nobles nor the poverty of the masses to hinder your work. You by word and I by deed, you by preaching and I by the law, you by upbringing and I by educating will care for those souls whom God has entrusted to us, and together we will abide by the low of the God, in order to escape eternal condemnation…You as priests and I as a ruler, you as stewards of good and I as the watchman of the good.”

Tamar pursued a policy of conquest. She conquered Tabriz, Erzurum, had a brilliant victory over the Sultan of Ardabil. The battle of Shamkor brought her a great reputation, echoes of which are heard in the Russian legend about the Queen of Iberia Dinara.

So the period between the early 12th and the early 13th centuries, and especially the era of Tamar the Great, can truly be considered as the golden age of Georgia. Besides the political and military achievements, it was marked by the development of Georgian culture, including architecture, literature, philosophy and sciences.

4. Queen Elizabeth I

The Virgin Queen, Gloriana or Good Queen Bess, Elizabeth (7 September 1533 – 24 March 1603) was the last monarch of the House of Tudor. Elizabeth I is considered to be one of the most successful and popular monarchs of England. She is the most prominent representative of the English absolutism. Being clever, enigmatic and flirtatious, she could rewrite the rules of being Queen. But what was Elizabeth really like?

I am more afraid of making a fault in my Latin than of the Kings of Spain, France, Scotland, the whole House of Guise, and all of their confederates.

The combination of power with the mind forms the best consonance in the world.

I have so much intelligence and talent in me that if tomorrow I’m kicked out of England in one skirt, I will still thrive anywhere in the Christian world.

Queen Elizabeth I Tudor

Elizabeth was brought up by governesses and tutors and used to spend her days studying Greek and Latin with the Cambridge scholar, Roger Ascham. Later Katherine Parr, Henry’s sixth wife, took a keen interest in young Elizabeth and made sure that she was educated to the highest standards. Elizabeth learned the art of public speaking which was unheard of for women at the time. And the ability to address a large number of people, from ministers in Parliament to troops on the battlefield, helped her in the future. She learnt how to turn the tide of opinion in her favour, and this became one of her most effective weapons.

“17 November 1558 it is said that Princess Elizabeth was sitting under an oak tree at Hatfield House when a horseman appeared with the news that would change her life forever”

[Alexandra Briscoe. Assistant Producer on Simon Schama’s A History of Britain, specializing in the reign of Elizabeth I for the programme entitled The Body of the Queen].

The period of Elizabeth`s reign is known as a Golden Age. It was a time of extravagance and luxury in which a flourishing popular culture was expressed through writers such as Shakespeare, and explorers like Drake and Raleigh sought to expand England’s territory overseas. This sense of well-being was embodied by Queen Elizabeth.

The international policy of Elizabeth defended the interests of Protestantism. She helped the French Huguenots and in 1562-1564 had a war with France. She turned down the proposal of the Spain king Philip II to marry him and helped the Netherlanders revolting against Spain dominion. After the execution of Mary Stuart Philip sent “Invincible Armada” against England which suffered a crushing defeat from the English fleet in the English Channel in 1588. Elizabeth became famous for the oath given to her soldiers at the most dangerous moment promising to fall together with them in the battle. The Speech to the Troops at Tilbury. [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speech_to_the_Troops_at_Tilbury]

The victory over the Armada earned her the glory of the new mistress of the seas. It strengthened the international position of England.

Elizabeth patronized culture and literature. With her, English culture reached its highest peak. Her reign is associated with the remarkable names of poets of playwrights and scientists. Those are William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon, Benjamin Jonson and Christopher Marlowe.

Elizabeth’s greatest achievement lays in the relationship she had forged with her people. She was ahead of her time in her grasp of public relations, and her popularity had remained undimmed.

5. Catherine the Great

Catherine II (Yekaterina Alekseyevna) known in history as the Great: she was born Princess Sophie of Anhalt-Zerbst, and was Empress of Russia from 1762 until 1796, she was longest-ruling female leader of Russia. She came to power when her husband, Peter III, was assassinated. Under her reign, Russia was revitalized; it grew larger and stronger, and was recognized as one of the great powers of Europe. Her reign became Russia’s Golden Age, the time of great reforms and glorious victories.

One of her contemporaries described the essence of her rule, saying that Peter the Great created people in Russia, and Catherine put her heart into them. She changed Russia little by little and finished what Peter had done forcibly. Here is how Prince Pyotr Vyazemsky described the different approaches of these two outstanding sovereigns: “the Russian man wanted Russians to become Germans, and the German lady tried to make them Russians again.”

“I have never done anything without being deeply convinced that it is done according to the benefit of my state:” Empress Catherine II wrote about herself and Russia, the country in which she lived more than half a century and which became for her a real homeland.

With German blood and Russian soul

She was an Empress for many years.

With her wise rule of glory

She broughtgreatness to the Russian Empire..

“Devoted to Catherine the Great” Zoia Voronina [Translated by Akinin Mikhail] https://www.chitalnya.ru/work/976793/

The empress kept saying “whatever I do for Russia it will only be just a drop in the sea…but after me my beginnings will be followed and continued”. She herself had to continue a lot of things that her predecessors could not manage to finish especially concerning foreign affairs.

The government of Catherine II continued the struggle for Russia’s withdrawal to the Black Sea. The affirmation on the Black Sea coast would at last give the country the opportunity to be actively engaged in the trade with the countries of the East. However, Russia did not satisfy the aspirations of France and Turkey. And it led to two long and bloody wars of Russia and Turkey and where Russia was the winner.

She protected the holy interest of Russia,

Its possessions expanded for future use,

And taught an impressive lesson

To Turkey in the war for the coast.

“Devoted to Catherine the Great” Zoia Voronina[Translated by Akinin Mikhail]

https://www.chitalnya.ru/work/976793/

Thanks to the victories won by the ground forces and the navy, the Russian Empire linked the entire Northern Black Sea coast to its own territories. The Crimean Khanate, which in 1774 received political independence from Turkey, became part of Russia in 1783. Russia got access to the Black Sea and got rid of the constant threat of attacks by the Crimeans, behind whom Turkey stood. It represented a huge benefit for Russia in economic terms.

The reign of Catherine II was marked by extensive enlightening reforms. She devoted much attention to expanding the country’s educational facilities being concerned to established institutes, cadet corps and foster homes. But the main merit of Catherine in this area can be considered the first experience of creating a system of general primary education in Russia, not limited by class barriers (with the exception of serfs).

It is also remarkable that under Catherine the organization of medical assistance to the population was entrusted to the authorities. Each city had to have a hospital and a pharmacy, where patients were offered not those medicines that were cheaper, but those which were prescribed by a doctor. The epidemic of smallpox remained a terrible disaster for the people of Russia, and Catherine set an example by getting vaccination.

The history of the reign of Empress Catherine II is a history of brilliant good will and its implementation. A colossal legislative and administrative work was carried out, which turned Russia into a Europeanized power. The army and the navy brought many glorious victories to Russia.

But Catherine herself spoke best of herself in the epitaph, which long before her death she wrote for her future gravestone: “Catherine II rests here. She came to Russia in 1744 to marry Peter III. At the age of 14 she took a three-sided decision: to enchant her husband, Empress Elizabeth and the people of Russia. And she used every single chance to succeed in this. Eighteen years of loneliness and boredom made her read many books. As she mounted to the Russian throne she did her best to give her people happiness, freedom and wellbeing. She forgave people easily and hated nobody. She was charitable, good-tempered and loved life. She was a true republican in her politics and was kind-hearted. She had friends. She worked easily. She loved social life and the arts.”

6. Indira Gandhi

Indira Gandhi was born 19 November 1917 in Allahabad, India. She was the daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Indian prime minister and was the first and, to date, the only female Prime Minister of India.

At forty-eight she became a prime minister

And was trusted by millions of people.

She, who received an ideal education,

And got blessing in prison

She proclaimed herself the mother of India

And in the war was absolutely merciless.

(“Indira Gandhi’ Oksana Chingaeva) [Translated by Akinin Mikhail]

Since the Nehru family was the centre of national political activity, Indira Gandhi was exposed to politics from a young age. A leader like Mahatma Gandhi was among the frequent visitors to the Nehru house in Allahabad. After his return to the country, Indira showed keen interest in the national movement. In 1938 she also became a member of the Indian National Congress and became a central figure. She was repeatedly put under arrests by the British authorities.

In January 1966 Indira Gandhi became the prime minister of India and she decided to accelerate the modernization of the country relying on Soviet aid. The new course caused a split in the Indian National Congress in 1969. But Gandhi retained the majority in the parliament as her reforms were supported by the communist party. USSR was the main arms supplier during the Gandhi`s reign by offering cheap credit and transactions in rupees rather than in dollars. Though the USSR was not happy with the 1974 nuclear test conducted by India and did not support further action because of the ensuing cold war with the United States. Under Indira by early 1980s the USSR became the largest trading partner of India.

Gandhi nationalized key industries and accelerated industrial construction in 1969-1972. India won the Indo Pakistani conflict under her leadership in 1971 which resulted in the creation of Bangladesh.

The unrest of the peasants, the poor, the students and religious clashes increased in middle 1970s. The opposition demanded to stop Gandhi`s fundamental changes. The government was accused of corruption. In response to it Gandhi imposed a state of emergency in the country in 1974. The leaders of the opposition were arrested. Backsliding on democracy only exacerbated the problem.

Indira Gandhi, who was the follower of democratic traditions of her father, abolished the state of emergency. The Indian National Congress lost the elections then.

Not everyone knew that on June 12, 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi, was found guilty of electoral corruption by the Allahabad High Court. She was banned from contesting elections for six years. But Indira had ignored the court’s order. Meanwhile, all the anti-Indira people united and an atmosphere of protest was created against her but she was released due to “insufficient validity of accusations presented to her.” In 1978 she was continuing her political activity. In January 1980 Gandhi won the election. The main problem she had to deal with during her second reign (1980-1984) was the separatism of the Sikh in the state of Punjab. The Sikh took an active part in the life of the Indian society. But the conflict between them and the Hindus got even stronger in 1980s. The Sikh extremists captured the shrine of the Golden Temple. Gandhi found nothing better than to capture the temple by storm.

In June 1984 after several useless negotiations, Indira Gandhi ordered the army to enter the Golden Temple in order to remove the separatists from the complex. The army used heavy artillery, including tanks, in the action code-named Operation Blue Star. The operation damaged the parts of the Temple complex, including the Akal Takht shrine and the Sikh library. A great number of Sikh fighters and innocent pilgrims died then. Gandhi was accused of using the attack for political principles.

It is interesting to ruminate on why India’s only female Prime Minister still occupies so much of the mind-space of the Indian people. It is equally plausible to argue that, a leader who imposed the dreaded Emergency in 1975-77, should be remembered only for this direct assault on Indian democracy. But, Indira Gandhi, returned triumphantly to power in 1980, and even today, is remembered more for her remarkable political acumen than for the – brief but undeniable – authoritarian streak in her career.

One of the most notable achievements of her stint as a prime minister was the nationalization of the fourteen largest banks in India along with four premium oil companies in 1969. She took constructive steps towards food shortage of the country and led the country into nuclear age with its first underground detonation in 1974.

Indira Gandhi has remained in the memory and hearts of people,

Her rule was not ideal, but it was her

That managed to bring India to the world stage.

She knew the price that she would pay

For the happiness of her people.

(“Indira Gandhi’ Oksana Chingaeva) [Translated by Akinin Mikhail]

Indira Gandhi has been voted the greatest woman of the past 1,000 years in a poll by BBC News Online in 1999. India’s first woman prime minister had been running equally with Queen Elizabeth I in the first half of November but was pushed ahead to top the poll by a large majority. [BBC NEWS Wednesday, 1 December, 1999, 08:09 GMT]

7. Margaret Thatcher

Margaret Hilda Thatcher, Baroness Thatcher was an English politician and stateswoman. She was born on 13 October 1925 in the family of an owner of a grocery store. She graduated from Oxford University as a specialist of chemist.

They called you Iron lady...

Your enemies unflatteringly...

But the soul aimed to the highest...

And to be honest you were just so special...

You saved England at the crisis...

Though the measures were unpopular...

You threw the country into chaos...

And doubtlessly you`re a legend...

(“In memory of Margaret Thatcher” Vladislav Kernis Amelin) [Translated by Akinin Mikhail]

Thatcher was the first woman who had become the leader of the Conservative Party in Great Britain (1975-1990) and the Prime minister (1979-1990). She gave the name to the political trend known as “Thatcherism”. Its essence boiled down to a sharp restriction of state intervention in the economy, the privatization of industries nationalized by the Laborites, the encouragement of private entrepreneurship through tax cuts.

In foreign policy, the main emphasis was placed on the strengthening of relations with the United States and supported Ronald Reagan’s initiatives toward the USSR, to which both politicians were distrustful.

The Thatcher government confronted with the trade unions by suppressing the strike of miners and issuing a number of anti-union laws. On January 19, 1976 Thatcher made a sharp speech criticizing the Soviet Union. “A huge, largely land-locked country like Russia does not need to build the most powerful navy in the world just to guard its own frontiers. The Russians are bent on world dominance, and they are rapidly acquiring the means to become the most powerful imperial nation the world has seen. The men in the Soviet politburo don’t have to worry about the ebb and flow of public opinion. They put guns before butter, while we put just about everything before guns. They know that they are a super power in only one sense—the military sense.” [1976 Jan 19 Mo Margaret Thatcher. Speech at Kensington Town Hall (“Britain Awake”) (The Iron Lady)].

However, Thatcher was one of the first Western politicians assessing the reformist mood of the Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev positively, who was the first to hold talks in London in December 1984. She is known for her phrase about Gorbachev after these negotiations in 1988: “We’re not in a Cold War now”, but rather in a “new relationship much wider than the Cold War ever was.” In 1984 Thatcher went on a state visit to the Soviet Union and met with Gorbachev and Council of Ministers Chairman Nikolai Ryzhkov.

The contradictions in the party on further integration with Europe and the authoritarian leadership style of Thatcher led to her resignation in 1992. After holding an audience with the Queen, calling other world leaders, and making one final Commons speech, on 28 November she left Downing Street in tears. She reportedly regarded her ousting as a betrayal. Her resignation was a shock for many foreign leaders.

In 2013 she died of a stroke in London at the age of 87. Always a controversial figure, she has nonetheless been lauded as one of the greatest, most influential and widest-known politicians in British history, even as arguments over Thatcherism persist. [BBC NEWS 8 April 2013]

The Application

1. Is a woman capable of ruling a state with dignity?

7 – 9 grade students answered:

“YES” – 51%; “NO” – 27%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 14%; “OTHER” – 8%

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10 – 11 grade students answered:

“YES” – 71%; “NO” – 22%;

“FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 7%; “OTHER” – 0%

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The teachers answered:

“YES” – 87%; “NO” – 5%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 7%; “OTHER” – 1%

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2. Is a woman capable of influencing a man’s opinion?

7 – 9 grade students answered:

“YES” – 70%; “NO” – 11%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 8%; “OTHER” – 11%

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10 – 11 grade students answered:

“YES” – 39%; “NO” – 57%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 2%; “OTHER” – 2%

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The teachers answered:

YES” – 37%; “NO” – 11%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 8%; “OTHER” – 44%

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3. Are women wiser than men?

7 – 9 grade students answered:

YES” – 50%; “NO” – 17%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 15%; “OTHER” – 18%

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10 – 11 grade students answered:

YES” – 37%; “NO” – 55%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 2%; “OTHER” – 6%

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The teachers answered:

YES” – 77%; “NO” – 11%; “FIND IT DIFFICULT TO ANSWER” – 9%; “OTHER” – 3%

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Conclusion

In the course of the work, the material about the great representatives of the female who were in power in different periods of the world history was studied and synthesized.

I could answer the questions I had raised initially:

- How was the rule passed into women’s hands?

- What difficulties were met on this path?

- What reforms were carried out during the women’s rule?

- What memory did the women leaders leave behind?

-How did their reign affect the development of the state?

The study showed that it is quite possible and sometimes even more appropriate to involve women more widely in government. These conclusions support the hypothesis: a woman is able to rule a state worthily.

In my work on the example of the state activities of seven great women of different epochs, I proved that a woman in a necessary condition can lead a sate worthily.

I think that the discussion of the issue in my work will help students to form their view of the world, value orientations corresponding to the modern period in the development of the society – the period of approval of the priority of the individual.

My work has a practical focus: it can be used for holding thematic class hours, for lecturing on topics in preparation for history lessons, lessons of World Literature, as well as in preparing for the passing of the USE on history, social studies and English.


Библиографическая ссылка

Акинин М.Д. THE GREAT FEMALE LEADERS WHO CHANGED THE COURSE OF HISTORY // Международный школьный научный вестник. – 2018. – № 5-5. ;
URL: https://school-herald.ru/ru/article/view?id=737 (дата обращения: 18.08.2022).

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